Medium to large sized tree up to 50 feet. Trunks are often short, dividing  into  several upright trunks. Develops an irregular, oblong crown. The wood is light and hard, used to a minor extent  for boxes, toys and turned articles. A valuable tree in the prevention of stream bank erosion and revegetating strip mining sites. An attractive ornamental tree. A member of the Birch family, also known as Red, Black or Water Birch.


Oval or triangular with wedge shaped base, 1 ½” to 3″ long. Silver underleaf.


Young – smooth, salmon to cinnamon, multi-layers of loose peeling scales. Mature – reddish-brown  thick scale layers in irregular plates.


Orange-brown in color and slender form. Smooth or slightly fuzzy .


Cone-like, 1 – 1 ½ long, hairy scales. Reddish brown with multiple 3 winged seeds that release in the fall.


This species is unisexual – reddish- green male catkins at end of twig, female flower cluster  upright,  half as long as leaves.